Zinc is a trace element mandatory for the working of more than seventy metalloenzymes in an animal’s body. A dog’s physiology needs certain amounts of zinc, but the consumption of materials containing zinc will typically create toxic levels. This metal is present in many items, including galvanized surfaces, batteries, wood preservatives, screws and nuts, supplements, creams, and many others. Since 1983, the penny has been composed of approximately 96% zinc (2,440 mg/penny). Consumption of pennies is the most frequently recognized cause of zinc intoxication in dogs. A penny’s shinny copper colour draws the awareness of canines who will at the least need to sniff the coins when left in a location dogs have access to. A coins texture and size seems to draw both kids and dogs to placing the coin in their mouths. The swallowing is mostly random but a typical outcome to the coin being in the mouth.
The LD50 of zinc salts is one hundred mg / kg (roughly one penny for a 50-lb dog). Once ingested, the acidic environment of the gut leads to formation of zinc salts, which are then absorbed in the duodenum and distributed to many tissues. The chemical reaction between zinc and stomach acid (hydrochloric acid) is similar to that in wet cell batteries and would likely be caustic to the stomach lining. A survey by the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals and the Animal Poison Control Center found that the most typical signs were anemia (72%), depression (66%), puking (61%), hemolysis (33%), hemoglobinuria (22%), and renal abnormalities (22%).
Elimination of zinc is generally fecal through pancreatic excretions, bile, and gut (GI) mucosa, although some is also eliminated thru pee. At this dose, zinc may cause a variety of signs based primarily on potential effects on red blood cell production, kidneys, pancreas, GI mucosa, and possible liver damage. The explicit mechanism of hemolysis is not known but the damage to red blood cells causes the releasing of hemoglobin into a dog’s body. Chances include direct red blood cell damage to membranes, damage to organelles, immune-mediated destruction from hapten formation, or inhibition of biochemical functions necessary for protection of red blood cells.
Dog owners should seek medical aid from their vets when a dog has ingested metal objects noting that pennies and zinc are very poisonous and need immediate treatment. It is essential to keep circulation to the kidneys at adequate levels to stop renal failure. The University of Maryland commends administering plenty of liquids. Ideally milk must be taken as an immediate first aid. Dogs enjoy the flavour of milk and owners should be well placed to get their dog’s to consume sufficient amounts to reduce the interaction of stomach acid and the metal ingested. Emergency veterinarian facilities should be in a position to perform nasogastric suction or gut lavage, by which the contents of the stomach are washed out, this procedure, may be resorted to dependent on the seriousness of poisoning. Antidotes are also administered to reverse the results of zinc poisoning. In dogs with severe anemia and hypocupremia, transfusion of red blood cells and measurement of ceruloplasmin and serum copper are done.
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